Amino Acids

Amino acids are chemical molecules that are essential for biological activity. They are composed of amine (-NH2) and carboxylic acid (-COOH) functional groups, as well as a side-chain that is distinct to each amino acid. Other elements can be found in the side chains of certain amino acids, but these are the primary constituents of amino acids. Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen are the primary constituents of amino acids. There are over 500 amino acids known, and they can be categorised in a variety of ways. It is possible to classify amino acids into four groups based on the placement of the fundamental structural functional groups: alpha (alpha), beta (beta), gamma (gamma), and delta (delta); further classifications are based on polarity, pH level, and side-chain group type (aliphatic, acyclic, aromatic, containing hydroxyl or sulfur, etc.).

Amino acids, in the form of proteins, are the second-biggest component of human muscles, cells, and other tissues (water being the largest component). Aside from their activities in proteins, amino acids have vital roles in a variety of processes such as neurotransmitter transport and protein synthesis. It is particularly important in biochemistry to have amino acids with both the amine and the carboxylic acid groups connected to the first (alpha-) carbon atom. Known as 2-, alpha-, or beta-amino acids (generic formula), they are essential building blocks of protein. In the majority of situations, H2NCHRCOOH is used. The amino acid proline is an exception to this general rule. Since of the cyclization of the side-chain, it is referred to as an imino acid, and it comes into the category of unique structural amino acids because it lacks the NH2 group. Where R is an organic substituent (also known as a “side-chain”); the term “amino acid” is frequently used to refer to them in particular because of their structure. They contain the 23 proteinogenic (“protein-making”) amino acids, which combine to create peptide chains (“polypeptides”), which serve as the building blocks for a wide variety of proteins in their various combinations. All of these amino acids are L-stereoisomers (also known as “left-handed” isomers), with the exception of a few D-amino acids (also known as “right-handed” isomers) found in bacterial envelopes and certain antibiotics.

Twenty of the proteinogenic amino acids are represented directly by triplet codons in the genetic code and are referred to as “standard” amino acids. The remaining amino acids are encoded indirectly by singlet codons. In addition to selenocysteine (which is found in many noneukaryotes and most eukaryotes but is not directly coded by DNA), pyrrolysine (which is found only in some archaea and one bacterium), and N-formylmethionine (which is found only in some archaea and one bacterium) are three other amino acids that are “non-standard” or “non-canonical” (which is often the initial amino acid of proteins in bacteria, mitochondria, and chloroplasts). In the case of pyrrolysine and selenocysteine, different types of codons are used; for example, selenocysteine is encoded by a stop codon and the SECIS element. Codon–tRNA pairings that are not present in nature can also be utilized to “extend” the genetic code and build novel proteins known as alloproteins that include amino acids that are not proteinogenic in the natural world.

Many significant proteinogenic and non-proteinogenic amino acids also serve important non-proteinogenic functions in the body’s metabolism and function. As an example, in the human brain, glutamate (standard glutamic acid) and gamma-amino-butyric acid (“GABA,” non-standard gamma-amino acid) are the primary excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters, respectively; hydroxyproline (a major component of connective tissue collagen) is synthesised from proline; the standard amino acid glycine is used to synthesise porphyrins, which are found in Nine proteinogenic amino acids are referred to as “essential” for humans since they cannot be synthesized by the human body from other molecules and, as a result, must be obtained from diet.

Others may be deemed conditionally necessary for people at a specific age or with certain medical problems. It is possible that essential amino acids differ between species. Amino acids are significant in nutrition because of their biological relevance. They are also extensively utilized in nutritional supplements, fertilizers, and food technology because of their biological significance. The manufacturing of pharmaceuticals, biodegradable polymers, and chiral catalysts are only a few examples of their industrial applications.

Chatzigianni MariaDirector • Producer

Maria is a happy and outgoing woman who loves to cook. She spends most of her time in the kitchen, but she also likes gardening!

Maria is living her dream as director of short movies and music videos. She has loved movies since she was little, so it’s no wonder that now she spends all day making them come to life!

She is the founder of this website, which provides a place for her – as well as so many others across the globe – to stay up-to-date on healthy lifestyle choices over 30.

86717660 10157338348002832 7613515391192530944 n