Cardiovascular System

The circulatory system, also known as the cardiovascular system, is an organ system that allows blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from cells in the body in order to nourish it, fight diseases, maintain homeostasis, and maintain body temperature and pH. Hemodynamics is the study of blood flow.

The cardiovascular system, which distributes blood, and the lymphatic system, which circulates lymph, are frequently considered as part of the circulatory system. These are two independent systems. Lymph, for example, takes far longer to get through than blood. The heart circulates blood, which is made up of plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets, through the vertebrate circulatory system, bringing oxygen and nutrients to and waste materials away from all bodily tissues.

Excess blood plasma is effectively recycled and returned to the lymphatic system after being filtered from the interstitial fluid (between cells). The cardiovascular system includes the blood, heart, and blood vessels (from Latin words meaning “heart” and “vessel”). The lymphatic system is made up of lymph, lymph nodes, and lymph arteries, and it returns filtered blood plasma from the interstitial fluid (between cells) as lymph. While humans and other vertebrates have a closed cardiovascular system (blood never leaves the network of arteries, veins, and capillaries), certain invertebrates have an open cardiovascular system. The lymphatic system, on the other hand, is an open system that allows surplus interstitial fluid to be returned to the bloodstream. The diploblastic animal phyla do not have circulatory systems.

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