phobia

In clinical psychology, a phobia is a type of anxiety disorder, usually defined as a persistent fear of an object or situation in which the sufferer commits to great lengths in avoiding, typically disproportional to the actual danger posed, often being recognized as irrational. In the event the phobia cannot be avoided entirely, the sufferer…

grass

Grasses, or more technically graminoids, are monocotyledonous, usually herbaceous plants with narrow leaves growing from the base. They include the “true grasses”, of the family Poaceae (also called Gramineae), as well as the sedges (Cyperaceae) and the rushes (Juncaceae). The true grasses include cereals, bamboo and the grasses of lawns (turf) and grassland. Sedges include…

physical

Physical abuse is an act of a person involving contact of another person intended to cause feelings of physical pain, injury, or other physical suffering or bodily harm. In most cases, children are the victims of physical abuse, but adults can also be victims, such as in a domestic context. Alternative terms sometimes used include…

gland

A gland is an organ in an animal’s body that synthesizes a substance such as hormones for release into the bloodstream (endocrine gland) or into cavities inside the body or its outer surface (exocrine gland).

itchy bottom

Pruritus ani (also known as anusitis) is the irritation of the skin at the exit of the rectum, known as the anus, causing the desire to scratch. The intensity of anal itching increases from moisture, pressure, and rubbing caused by clothing and sitting. At worst, anal itching causes intolerable discomfort that often is accompanied by…

Frisbee

A flying disc is a disc-shaped gliding toy or sporting item that is generally plastic and roughly in diameter with a lip, used recreationally and competitively for throwing and catching, for example, in flying disc games. The shape of the disc, an airfoil in cross-section, allows it to fly by generating lift as it moves…

stuffed animal

A stuffed toy is a toy sewn from a textile, and stuffed with a soft material. In North American English they are variously referred to as plush toys, plushies, or stuffed animals while in British English they are soft toys or cuddly toys. Textiles commonly used include plain cloth and pile textiles like plush or…

collar

An animal collar is a device that attached to the neck of an animal to allow it to be harnessed, tied up or for various other reasons. Pet collar. A piece of material put around the neck of certain pet animals, such as dogs or cats, for control, identification, or other purposes. Identification tags and…

cooking

Cooking or cookery is the process of preparing food for consumption with the use of heat. Cooking techniques and ingredients vary widely across the world, reflecting unique environmental, economic, and cultural traditions and trends. The way that cooking takes place also depends on the skill and type of training an individual cook has. Cooking can…

rectum

The rectum (from the Latin rectum intestinum, meaning straight intestine) is the final straight portion of the large intestine in some mammals, and the gut in others. The human rectum is about long, and begins at the rectosigmoid junction (the end of the sigmoid colon), at the level of the third sacral vertebra or the…

fever

Fever (also known as pyrexia or a febrile response) is defined as a body temperature above the normal range due to an increase in the temperature regulatory set-point. There is not a single agreed upon upper limit for normal temperature with sources using values between . The increase in set-point triggers increased muscle tone and…

zoysia

Zoysia is a genus of creeping grasses widespread across much of Asia as well as Australia and various islands in the Pacific. These species, commonly called zoysia or zoysiagrass, are found in coastal areas or grasslands.Flora of China Vol. 22 Page 496 结缕草属 jie lü cao shu Zoysia Willdenow, Ges. Naturf. Freunde Berlin Neue Schriften….

Bermuda

Cynodon dactylon, also known as dūrvā grass, Dhoob, Bermuda grass, bermudagrass, dubo, dog’s tooth grass, Bahama grass, devil’s grass, couch grass, Indian doab, arugampul, grama, and scutch grass, is a grass that originated in the Middle East. Although it is not native to Bermuda, it is an abundant invasive species there. It is presumed to…

sprinkler

Irrigation sprinklers are sprinklers providing irrigation to vegetation, or for recreation, as a cooling system, or for the control of airborne dust.The sprinkler system irrigates the field drop by drop and thus it is widely used in sandy areas as it checks the wastage of water through seepage and evaporation.Sprinkler irrigation is a method of…

Fescue

Festuca (fescue) is a genus of flowering plants belonging to the grass family, Poaceae (subfamily Pooideae). They are evergreen or herbaceous perennial tufted grasses with a height range of and a cosmopolitan distribution, occurring on every continent except Antarctica. The genus is closely related to ryegrass (Lolium), and recent evidence from phylogenetic studies using DNA…

centipede

Centipedes (from Latin prefix , “hundred”, and , , “foot”) are arthropods belonging to the class Chilopoda of the subphylum Myriapoda. They are elongated metameric creatures with one pair of legs per body segment. Despite the name, centipedes can have a varying number of legs from under 20 to over 300. Centipedes have an odd…

irrigation

Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the land or soil. It is used to assist in the growing of agricultural crops, maintenance of landscapes, and revegetation of disturbed soils in dry areas and during periods of inadequate rainfall. Additionally, irrigation also has a few other uses in crop production, which include protecting plants…

ryegrass

Ryegrass (Lolium) is a genus of nine species of tufted grasses in the Pooideae subfamily of the Poaceae family. They are characterized by bunch-like growth habits. These plants are native to Europe, Asia and northern Africa, but are widely cultivated and naturalized elsewhere. Ryegrasses are naturally diploid, with 2n = 14, and are closely related…

polycarbonate

Polycarbonates (PC), known by the trademarked names Lexan, Makrolon and others, are a particular group of thermoplastic polymers. They are easily worked, molded, and thermoformed. Because of these properties, polycarbonates find many applications. Polycarbonates do not have a unique resin identification code and are identified as Other, 7. Items made from polycarbonate can contain the…

plastic

A plastic material is any of a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic solids that are malleable. Plastics are typically organic polymers of high molecular mass, but they often contain other substances. They are usually synthetic, most commonly derived from petrochemicals, but many are partially natural. Due to their relatively low cost, ease of…

rubber

Natural rubber, also called India rubber or caoutchouc, as initially produced, consists of polymers of the organic compound isoprene, with minor impurities of other organic compounds plus water. Forms of polyisoprene that are used as natural rubbers are classified as elastomers. Currently, rubber is harvested mainly in the form of the latex from certain trees….

gums

The gingiva (sing. and plur.: gingiva), or gums, consist of the mucosal tissue that lies over the mandible and maxilla inside the mouth.

cooling

Heat transfer describes the exchange of thermal energy, between physical systems depending on the temperature and pressure, by dissipating heat. The fundamental modes of heat transfer are conduction or diffusion, convection and radiation. The exchange of kinetic energy of particles through the boundary between two systems which are at different temperatures from each other or…

pavement

Road surface or pavement (American English) is the durable surface material laid down on an area intended to sustain vehicular or foot traffic, such as a road or walkway. In the past, gravel road surfaces, cobblestone and granite setts were extensively used, but these surfaces have mostly been replaced by asphalt or concrete laid on…

gravel

Gravel is composed of unconsolidated rock fragments that have a general particle size range and include size classes from granule- to boulder-sized fragments. Gravel is categorized by the Udden-Wentworth scale into granular gravel () and pebble gravel (). One cubic yard of gravel typically weighs about 3000 pounds (or a cubic metre is about 1,800…

engrave

Engraving is the practice of incising a design onto a hard, usually flat surface, by cutting grooves into it. The result may be a decorated object in itself, as when silver, gold, steel, or glass are engraved, or may provide an intaglio printing plate, of copper or another metal, for printing images on paper as…

identifying

Animal identification using a means of marking is a process done to identify and track specific animals. It is done for a variety of reasons including verification of ownership, biosecurity control, and tracking for research or agricultural purposes.

stainless steel

In metallurgy, stainless steel, also known as inox steel or inox from French “inoxydable”, is a steel alloy with a minimum of 10.5% chromium content by mass. Stainless steel does not readily corrode, rust or stain with water as ordinary steel does. However, it is not fully stain-proof in low-oxygen, high-salinity, or poor air-circulation environments….

rust

Rust is an iron oxide, usually red oxide formed by the redox reaction of iron and oxygen in the presence of water or air moisture. Several forms of rust are distinguishable both visually and by spectroscopy, and form under different circumstances. Rust consists of hydrated iron(III) oxides Fe2O3·nH2O and iron(III) oxide-hydroxide (FeO(OH), Fe(OH)3). Given sufficient…

blender

A blender (sometimes called a liquidiser in British English) is a kitchen and laboratory appliance used to mix, puree, or emulsify food and other substances. A stationary blender consists of a blender jar with a rotating metal blade at the bottom, powered by an electric motor in the base. Some powerful models can also crush…

nutrients

Nutrients are the components in foods that an organism utilizes to survive and grow. Macronutrients provide the bulk energy for an organism’s metabolic system to function, while micronutrients provide the necessary cofactors for metabolism to be carried out. Both types of nutrients can be acquired from the environment. They are used to build and repair…

nutritious

Nutrition is the science that interprets the interaction of nutrients and other substances in food (e.g. phytonutrients, anthocyanins, tannins, etc.) in relation to maintenance, growth, reproduction, health and disease of an organism. It includes food intake, absorption, assimilation, biosynthesis, catabolism and excretion. The diet of an organism is what it eats, which is largely determined…

bicycle

A bicycle, often called a bike or cycle, is a human-powered, pedal-driven, single-track vehicle, having two wheels attached to a frame, one behind the other. A bicycle rider is called a cyclist, or bicyclist. Bicycles were introduced in the 19th century in Europe and, , number more than a billion worldwide, twice as many as…

psychological condition

A mental disorder, also called a mental illness or psychiatric disorder, is a mental or behavioral pattern or anomaly that causes either suffering or an impaired ability to function in ordinary life (disability), and which is not a developmental or social norm. Mental disorders are generally defined by a combination of how a person feels,…

pica

Pica ( ) is characterized by an appetite for substances that are largely non-nutritive, such as paper, clay, metal, chalk, soil, glass, or sand. According to DSM-IV criteria, for these actions to be considered pica, they must persist for more than one month at an age where eating such objects is considered developmentally inappropriate, not…

Coconut

Coconut

The coconut tree (Cocos nucifera) belongs to the Arecaceae family (palm family). The genus Cocos has exactly one recognized species. Coconut can refer to the complete coconut palm, the seed, or the fruit, which is a drupe, not a nut, according to botanical classification. The word cocoanut is spelled in an old way. The term…

DEET

DEET

DEET is a chemical component found in many insect repellents. It is a colorless, odorless liquid that repels a variety of insects, including mosquitoes, ticks, and fleas. DEET was created in 1946 by the United States Army to protect soldiers against insect-borne ailments such as malaria and Lyme disease. The chemical soon gained popularity in…

Fibreglass

Fibreglass

Fiberglass (or fibreglass) is a form of fiber reinforced plastic with glass fiber as the reinforcing fiber. The glass fiber can be placed freely, although it is most often woven into a mat. The plastic matrix might be thermosetting (epoxy, polyester resin, or vinylester) or thermoplastic. Glass fibers are manufactured from several kinds of glass…

Shovel

Shovel

A shovel is a tool used to dig, lift, and move bulk items like dirt, coal, gravel, snow, sand, or ore. Shovels are ubiquitous equipment used widely in agriculture, construction, and gardening. The majority of shovels are hand tools with a wide blade attached to a medium-length handle. Shovel blades are often composed of sheet…

Wash Your Hands

Wash Your Hands

Hand washing, also known as hand hygiene, is the act of cleansing one’s hands with or without the use of water or another liquid, or with soap or e.g. ash, to remove soil, filth, and/or microbes. Medical hand hygiene refers to the hygiene procedures associated with the administration of medicine and medical treatment that prevent…

What Is a Pooper Scooper?

What Is a Pooper Scooper?

A pooper scooper is a device used for picking up animal feces, particularly from a dog. It generally consists of a small scoop with an extending handle, allowing the user to pick up the feces without having to bend over. Some models also include a bag or bucket attachment, allowing the user to dispose of…

Repellent

Repellent

An insect repellent (sometimes known as “bug spray”) is a material that, when applied to skin, clothes, or other surfaces, inhibits insects (and other arthropods) from landing or climbing on that surface. Insect repellents aid in the prevention and control of insect-borne illnesses such malaria, Lyme disease, dengue fever, bubonic plague, and West Nile fever….

Bathe

Bathe

How often should dogs be bathed? Most experts recommend bathing your dog at least once every month. This will help to keep their coat clean and free of any build-up of dirt, debris, or tangles. It will also help to prevent skin problems such as allergies, infections, and dryness. If your dog has a particularly…

Preservatives

Preservatives

A preservative is a chemical that is applied to foods, medications, paints, biological samples, wood, and other things to prevent breakdown caused by microbial growth or undesired chemical changes. In general, there are two types of preservation: chemical and physical. Adding chemical ingredients to a product is known as chemical preservation. Refrigeration and drying are required for physical preservation. Artificial preservatives are produced by humans. They may be found in foods, cosmetics, and a variety of other items. Artificial preservatives help to prevent foodborne diseases, minimize microbial deterioration, and maintain freshness and nutritional quality. Some physical preservation procedures include dehydration, UV-C radiation, freeze-drying, and chilling. are some physical preservation procedures. In most cases, chemical and physical preservation are used together. Are preservatives harmful for dogs? Food preservatives work by suppressing the development of mold, bacteria, and other microbes, extending the shelf life of foods. While scientists disagree on whether or not preservatives are hazardous to people, there is little doubt that they may be damaging to dogs. Preservatives may…

Ingredients

Ingredients

An ingredient is a substance that is included in a mixture (in a general sense). In cooking, for example, recipes indicate which elements are required to produce a specific dish. Many commercial items have a secret component that is said to make them superior to competitors. In the pharmaceutical industry, an active ingredient is the…

Travelling with Pets

Travelling with Pets

Travelling with pets can be a fun and rewarding experience, but it’s important to do your research before hitting the road. There are a few things to keep in mind when travelling with pets, such as making sure your pet is up-to-date on all their vaccinations and reviews any travel restrictions that may be in…

Hair

Hair

Hair is a protein filament that grows from follicles in the dermis, or skin. Hair is one of the distinguishing traits of mammals. The most frequent interest in hair is concentrated on hair development, hair types, and hair care, but hair is also an essential biomaterial consisting mostly of protein, particularly keratin. It’s no secret…

Joints

Joints

A joint or articulation (or articulate surface) is the point at which two bones come together. They are physically and functionally classed, and are designed to enable mobility (save for the cranium, sacral, sternal, and pelvic bones). How do I know if my dog has joint problems? While there are other alternatives, glucosamine is frequently regarded as the finest supplement for dogs‘ joints. In contrast to NSAIDs, which can have major adverse effects, glucosamine has been shown to be safe for long-term usage. As a consequence, glucosamine supplements may be beneficial…

Vegetables

Vegetables

Can dogs eat vegetables everyday? While every dog is unique and some may have specific dietary requirements, the majority of dogs can benefit from consuming vegetables daily. Vegetables are a good source of nutrients, fiber, and antioxidants, and they promote intestinal health. In addition, many veggies are low in calories, making them an excellent way…

Dog Walking

Dog Walking

The activity of going on a walk with a dog, often for the purposes of getting some exercise or spending time with a companion, is known as dog walking. Due to the fact that it offers both physical and mental advantages for the dog, many dog owners like engaging their pets in this pastime. Walking…

Running With Your Dog

Running With Your Dog

Running with your dog can be a great way to bond with your furry friend while also getting some exercise. However, there are a few things to keep in mind to make sure that everyone has a safe and enjoyable experience. Dogs are social creatures that need to interact with their owner on a regular…

Best Dog Backpacks

Best Dog Backpacks

In its most basic form, a backpack (also known as a rucksack, knapsack, packsack, pack, or bergen) is a cloth sack carried on one’s back and secured with two straps that cross the shoulders, but there are exceptions. Lightweight backpacks with only one shoulder strap are occasionally used. Due to the limited capacity of the…

Ventilation

Ventilation

Ventilation is used to remove unpleasant odors and excess moisture, introduce outside air, circulate interior building air, and prevent interior air stagnation. The exchange of air to the outside as well as the circulation of air within the building are both examples of ventilation. It is a critical factor in maintaining acceptable indoor air quality…

Water-Resistant

Water-Resistant

Objects can be described as water-proof or water-resistant depending on whether they are mostly unaffected by water or whether they resist the entry of water under certain conditions. These goods are designed to function normally in damp settings as well as underwater to a certain depth. The process of making anything waterproof or water-resistant is…

Fillers

Fillers

A filler is a substance added to processed animal meals to give dietary fiber, bulk, or some other non-nutritive function. Corn and corncobs, feathers, soy, cottonseed hulls, peanut hulls, citrus pulp, screens, weeds, straw, and cereal by-products are frequently used as low-cost fillers or fiber sources. In addition to other health benefits such as lower blood sugar absorption, dietary fiber functions as a soothing substrate for creating the stool in the colon, and it should assist establish healthy fecal consistency. What are common fillers in dog food? Fillers are frequently used by pet food producers to bulk up their products or to offer low-grade fiber content. Corncobs, feathers, soy, cottonseed hulls, peanut hulls, citrus pulp, screening, weeds, straw, and cereal by-products are all typical fillers in dog food. While some components are less expensive than others, they give little nutritional benefit to your pet and can even be dangerous in some situations. Feathers, for example, might create digestive problems, while corncobs can contribute to weight gain. As a result, it’s critical to check the ingredient list on any pet food you buy carefully to ensure it doesn’t include any fillers that might hurt your dog. Why does dog food have fillers? Plant-based fillers in pet food are frequently rice, maize, or soy. While these substances are not inherently detrimental to your pet, they do not give much nutrients. Furthermore, fillers might contribute to weight gain and other health issues. The primary reason manufacturers add fillers to pet food is to reduce costs. They may sell the meal for less and yet earn a profit by utilizing cheaper ingredients. This, however, implies that your pet isn’t getting the nutrients he requires to keep healthy. When selecting a pet food, be sure to carefully read the label and opt for meals that are strong in protein and low in fillers. Your pet will appreciate it! What does no fillers mean in dog food? The absence of fillers in dog food indicates that the diet includes solely animal protein and no other form of protein or component. This is significant since some fillers may be detrimental to dogs, causing them to gain weight or develop other health issues. Fillers can also make it more difficult for dogs to digest their meal. As a result, it is critical to select a dog food that is free of fillers. There are several dog food products that claim to be filler-free, so you should be able to find one that is suitable for your dog. You may also consult with your veterinarian about which dog food brands are appropriate for your dog and which to avoid. Chatzigianni Maria – Director • Producer Maria is a happy and outgoing woman who loves to cook. She spends most of her time in the kitchen, but she also likes…

Obesity In Dogs

Obesity In Dogs

Obesity is growing increasingly common in the United States, and our pets are not immune. According to polls, over half of all American dogs are overweight or obese. This is important since obesity may lead to a range of health problems in dogs, including joint pain, respiratory problems, and diabetes. Unfortunately, many pet owners are…

Bacteria

Bacteria

Bacteria (plural: bacterium) are a vast group of prokaryotic bacteria. Bacteria are typically a few micrometres long and come in a variety of forms, including spheres, rods, and spirals. Bacteria were among the first living forms to arise on Earth and may be found in nearly every environment. Bacteria may be found in soil, water, acidic hot springs, radioactive waste, and deep parts of the Earth’s crust. Bacteria also interact with plants and animals in symbiotic and parasitic partnerships. They have also been seen to thrive in human spaceships. A gram of soil normally has 40 million bacterial cells, while a millilitre of fresh water contains one million bacterial cells. There are around 51030 bacteria on Earth, with a biomass that outnumbers all plants and animals combined. What bacteria can you get from dogs? There is a good reason why dogs are frequently said to as “man’s best friend.” They bring us affection, company, and a sense of safety all at the same time. However, it is essential to keep in mind that in addition to their benefits, they also have…

Plaque

Plaque

What is the brown stuff on my dog’s teeth? Most likely, the brown substance on your dog’s teeth is plaque. Plaque is a bacterial coating that grows continuously on teeth. Plaque that is not removed might harden and transform into tartar. Tartar is a yellow or brown deposit that requires skilled dental cleaning to be…

Dental Hygiene

Dental Hygiene

It’s hard to imagine a world without dogs. They’re not just pets, they’re family members, beloved companions, and lifelong friends. But when it comes to their dental hygiene, a lot of dog owners are clueless about how to keep those adorable doggy pearly whites healthy and strong. In this article, we’ll discuss the importance of…

Toxic

Toxic

Unfortunately, there are some foods that are toxic for your dog, but luckily you can avoid them! We all hate it when we have to tell our dogs what they can and can’t eat. But unfortunately, there are some foods that toxic for your dog, but luckily you can avoid them! Some foods are toxic…

Sensitive Skin

Sensitive Skin

Anyone who has ever dealt with a dog that has sensitive skin knows how miserable it can make your furry friend. Here we’ve compiled everything you need to know about addressing this unpleasant problem, including what causes sensitive skin and the best ways to help soothe your dog’s irritated coat. Itchy skin can cause your…

Breed

Breed

A breed is a distinct group of domestic animals that have a homogenous look (phenotype), homogeneous behavior, and/or other features that identify them from other creatures of the same species and were obtained by selective breeding. Despite the importance of “breeds” in animal husbandry and agriculture, there is no one, scientifically recognized definition of the…

Fleas

Fleas

The insects comprising the order Siphonaptera are fleas. They lack wings and have modified mouthparts for piercing flesh and sucking blood. Fleas are external parasites that feed on the blood of mammals and birds through hematophagy. Cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis) and dog flea (Ctenocephalides canis) are examples of flea species (Ctenocephalides canis) Human lice (Pulex…

Ticks

Ticks

Ticks are tiny arachnids with close ties to spiders and mites. They are typically found in woodland or brushy regions, where they await a suitable host. When a tick locates a host, it will stick to the skin and begin feeding on the blood. It is vital to prevent ticks since they can spread a…

Larvae

Larvae

A larva (plural larvae) is a juvenile form that many animals go through before becoming adults. Insects, amphibians, and cnidarians, for example, have a larval stage in their life cycle. The larva’s appearance differs significantly from that of the adult (e.g. caterpillars and butterflies). A larva contains distinct structures and organs that do not exist…

Tartar

Tartar

Calculus, often known as tartar, is a kind of tooth plaque that has solidified and is used in dentistry. It is brought on by the precipitation of minerals in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and saliva that are present in the plaque that is on the teeth. The bacterial cells that are contained within dental…

Dehydration

Dehydration

Dehydration (hypohydration) is defined as an excessive loss of bodily water accompanied by a disturbance of metabolic processes in physiology and medicine. Dehydration refers to any state in which fluid volume is reduced; it most usually relates to hypernatremia (loss of free water and the resulting high salt content), but it can also apply to…

Diet

Diet

Diet is the total amount of food ingested by a human or other creature in nutrition. Dietary habits are the automatic decisions made by an individual or society when deciding what meals to eat. The term diet frequently refers to the utilization of a certain nutritional intake for health or weight-management purposes (with the two…

Feeding

Feeding

Eating (also known as consuming) is the swallowing of chewable items, often to supply energy and allow a heterotrophic creature to thrive. Carnivores eat other animals; herbivores eat plants; omnivores ingest a combination of plant and animal stuff, and detritivores eat trash. How Much Should You Feed Your Dogs a Day? The amount of food you feed your dog each day is determined by a variety of factors, including its age, activity level, and weight. Puppies and young dogs, for example, have higher calorie requirements than senior dogs. Similarly, very energetic or working dogs will require more calories than idle dogs. Your ultimate objective should be to keep your dog at a healthy weight. To do this, speak with your veterinarian to discover how many calories your dog need each day and then split that figure into the right number of meals. Two to three meals each day is ideal for most dogs. It’s also critical to select a high-quality food that fulfills your dog’s unique nutritional requirements. By considering these criteria, you may guarantee that you are feeding your dog the appropriate quantity of food each day. Is It Ok to Feed a Dog Once a Day? Dogs, like humans, require frequent feeding to preserve their health. A good rule of thumb is to feed your dog twice a day. There are, however, certain exceptions. If you feed your dog…

Itching

Itching

Itch (Latin: pruritus) is a sensation that elicits the urge or instinct to scratch. Numerous attempts to characterize itching as a single sensory experience have failed. Modern science has demonstrated that itch and pain share many similarities, but their behavioral responses are distinct. Pain causes a withdrawal reflex, but itching causes a scratching reflex. Unmyelinated…

Dogs’ Ears

Dogs’ Ears

The ear is the organ that controls hearing. It helps with balance and body alignment as well as receiving music. The ear is part of the auditory system. The whole organ is often referred to as the ear, even if just the visible part is. In most animals, the visible ear is a flap of…

Arthritis

Arthritis

Arthritis is a type of joint condition characterized by inflammation of one or more joints (from Greek arthro-, joint + -itis, inflammation; plural: arthritides). There are over a hundred different types of arthritis. The most prevalent type of arthritis is osteoarthritis (degenerative joint disease), which is caused by joint trauma, infection, or aging. Other types…

Diabetes

Diabetes

Canine diabetes is a chronic condition that affects the body’s ability to produce or properly use insulin. Insulin is a hormone that helps regulate blood sugar levels. When there is not enough insulin, or the body cannot properly use the insulin it produces, blood sugar levels become too high. Over time, high blood sugar levels…

Stomach

Stomach

In some animals, such as vertebrates, echinoderms, insects (mid-gut), and molluscs, the stomach is a muscular, hollow, dilated part of the digestive system that functions as an important organ of the digestive tract. Following mastication, it takes part in the second phase of digestion (chewing). The stomach is found between the esophagus and the small…

Vomiting

Vomiting

Vomiting (medically known as emesis and colloquially as throwing up and a variety of other words) is the involuntary, violent ejection of stomach contents through the mouth and sometimes the nose. Vomiting can be caused by a wide range of illnesses; it can manifest as a particular response to maladies such as gastritis or poisoning,…

Allergen

Allergen

An allergen is a sort of antigen that triggers an overly aggressive immune response in which the immune system defends the body against a perceived danger that would otherwise be innocuous. Allergies are the term for such responses.  Why is my dog constantly scratching and biting himself? While it’s easy to dismiss your dog’s scratching…

Loss of Appetite

Loss of Appetite

Anorexia is characterized by a loss of appetite. While the word is frequently used interchangeably with anorexia nervosa in non-scientific literature, there are numerous different causes for a loss of appetite, some of which are harmless, while others suggest a serious clinical illness or represent a substantial risk. Anorexia due to infection, for example, is…

Fur

Fur

The term “fur” refers to the hair of many animals, most often mammals, and more specifically those species that have substantial body hair covering. The phrase “pelage” (French, from Middle French, from poil hair, from Old French peilss, from Latin pilus; first recorded use in English around 1828) is occasionally used to describe to the…

Growling

Growling

What does “growling” in a dog mean? One way dogs communicate is through growling. Fear, anger, pain, possessiveness, playfulness, and warning are just few of the things it might indicate. Many people believe that growling always indicates aggression, although this is not always true. When dogs are playing or trying to warn their owners about…

Upset Stomach

Upset Stomach

Dyspepsia, often known as indigestion or heartburn, is a digestive disorder caused by a lack of stomach acid. It’s a medical disorder marked by chronic or recurrent upper stomach pain, upper abdominal fullness, and feeling full sooner than expected after eating. Bloating, belching, nausea, and heartburn are all possible side effects. Dyspepsia is a common…

German Shepherds

German Shepherds

German Shepherds (,) are a working dog breed that originated in Germany. In the English language, the breed’s official name is German Shepherd Dog, abbreviated as “GSD,” and it was previously known in Britain as the Alsatian and Alsatian Wolf Dog. The German Shepherd is a relatively recent dog breed, having been developed in 1899….

Understanding Dog Aggression

Understanding Dog Aggression

Aggression is overt, often violent, social behavior with the goal of causing injury or discomfort to another person. It is an almost ubiquitous animal habit. It might happen in retribution or without provocation. In humans, dissatisfaction caused by obstructed aims may lead to aggressiveness. Submissiveness is the polar opposite of assertiveness. What is considered an aggressive dog? When most people consider an aggressive dog, they see a Rottweiler or Pit Bull growling. However, violence is not exclusive to a single dog breed. In truth, any dog is capable of becoming violent given the correct conditions. Lack of socialization, fear, pain, and hunger are all factors…

Urinary System

Urinary System

The two kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra make up the urinary system, commonly known as the renal system. Nephrons are millions of functional units that make up each kidney. The renal system’s functions include waste elimination, blood volume and pressure regulation, electrolyte and metabolite control, and blood pH regulation. The kidneys get a large amount…

Urine

Urine

Urine is a liquid by-product of the body that is released by the kidneys through a process called urination (or micturition) and ejected through the urethra. The word “urine” comes from the Latin word “urina,” which means “ae” and “f.” The metabolism of cells results in the production of a large number of by-products, many…

Veterinary

Veterinary

The discipline of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of illness, disorder, and damage in animals is known as veterinary medicine. Veterinary medicine covers all animal species, both domesticated and wild, including a vast spectrum of disorders that can affect different species. Veterinary medicine is widely practiced, both professionally and unprofessionally. Professional…

Destructive Dog Chewing

Destructive Dog Chewing

Your dog may chew as a means to alleviate boredom or stress, but this behavior has the potential to do significant damage to the furniture and other objects in your home. It is essential to offer your dog with an abundance of chew toys and to pay them a lot of attention if you want…

Hypoallergenic

Hypoallergenic

In 1953, a cosmetics marketing coined the word hypoallergenic, which means “below normal” or “slightly” allergic. It refers to products (particularly cosmetics and textiles) that cause or claim to produce fewer allergic responses. Hypoallergenic pets still create allergens, but they often produce fewer allergens than other members of the same species due to their coat…

Allergies

Allergies

A hypersensitivity disease of the immune system is what is known as an allergy. In addition to red eyes, itching, and a runny nose, symptoms may also include eczema, hives, or an asthma attack. It’s possible that allergies are a significant contributor to illnesses like asthma. Anaphylaxis is the name given to a group of…

Digging

Digging

Why Do Dogs Dig? Dogs dig for a variety of reasons. Some dogs dig to create a comfortable place to lie down, while others dig to escape from their yards. Still other dogs dig because they’re bored or seeking attention. If your dog is digging holes in your yard, there are a few things you…

Diarrhea

Diarrhea

Diarrhea, often spelled diarrhoea, is a condition in which a person has at least three bowel movements each day that are loose or liquid in consistency. The word “diarrhea” comes from the Ancient Greek words for “through” and “flow.” It often lasts for a few of days and can lead to dehydration because of the…

Inflammation

Inflammation

Inflammation (Latin: nflamm, “I ignite, set ablaze”) is a complex physiologic response of vascular tissues to pathogens, injured cells, or irritants. Inflammation involves immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators and is a protective immunovascular response. Inflammation serves to eliminate the primary cause of cell damage, eliminate necrotic cells and tissues injured by the initial…

Dirt

Dirt

Dirt is filthy stuff that becomes dirty when it comes into touch with a person’s clothes, skin, or property. The following are examples of common forms of dirt: Soil: a mixture of clay, sand, and humus that rests on top of terrestrial bedrock Dust: an organic or mineral matter powder filth: vile substance such as…

Infections

Infections

Infection is the invasion of disease-causing pathogens into the bodily tissues of a host organism, their growth, and the host tissues’ response to these organisms and the toxins they create. Infectious diseases, often known as transmissible diseases or communicable diseases, are clinically obvious illnesses caused by the infection, presence, and proliferation of harmful biological agents…

Swelling

Swelling

In medical terminology, swelling, turgescence, or tumefaction refers to the brief abnormal enlargement of a body part or area that is not caused by cell proliferation. It is caused by fluid buildup in tissues. It may affect the entire body (global) or a particular area or organ (localized). Along with pain, heat, redness, and loss…

Housebreaking and Potty Training

Housebreaking and Potty Training

Housebreaking (American English) or house-training (British English) is the process of training a domesticated animal that lives with its human owners to excrete (urinate and defecate) outdoors, or in a designated indoor area (such as an absorbent pad or a litter box), rather than randomly inside the house. Globally, around 840 million cats and dogs…

pet

pet

A pet (or companion animal) is an animal kept primarily for the companionship or protection of its owner, as opposed to working animals, sport animals, livestock, and laboratory animals, which are kept for performance, agricultural value, or research. The most popular pets are distinguished by their appealing appearances as well as their devoted or lively…

dog

dog

The domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris) is a usually furry, carnivorous member of the Canidae family. Domestic dogs are commonly known as “man’s best friend”. The dog was the first domesticated animal and has been widely kept as a working, hunting, and pet companion. It is estimated there are between 700 million and one billion…

Separation Anxiety

Separation Anxiety

Separation anxiety disorder (SAD) is a psychiatric illness in which a person has excessive worry when separated from home or from persons to whom he or she has a strong emotional relationship (e.g. a parent, caregiver, or siblings). According to the American Psychological Association, separation anxiety disorder is defined as the inappropriate and excessive show…

Dog Treats

Dog Treats

Dog treats are a type of food made specifically for dogs. They are available in a variety of shapes, sizes, and flavors and can be used for training, rewards, or simply as a snack. While there is some debate about whether or not dog treats are actually healthy for dogs, there is no doubt that…

Bad Behaviour

Bad Behaviour

The behavior of some dogs might be concerning at times, despite the fact that they make fantastic pets and friends. There are a few things that may be done to assist in the correction of the problem if you are dealing with a dog that is behaving in an unacceptable manner. First things first, you…

Bored

Bored

Boredom is an emotional state experienced when an individual is left without anything in particular to do, and not interested in their surroundings. The first recorded use of the word boredom is in the novel Bleak House by Charles Dickens, written in 1852, in which it appears six times, although the expression to be a…

Licking

Licking

Licking is the process of moving the tongue over a surface, usually to deposit saliva, collect liquid, food, or minerals for ingestion, or communicate with other animals. Numerous animals self-groom and eat or drink by licking. What is Excessive Licking? Excessive licking is a behavioural disorder characterised by compulsive licking of surfaces. While it is…

Veterinarian

Veterinarian

A veterinary physician, abbreviated from veterinarian (American English, Australian English) or veterinary surgeon (British English), is a medical professional who treats illness, condition, and damage in nonhuman animals. In many countries, the local nomenclature for a veterinarian is a regulated and protected phrase, which means that members of the general public who lack the necessary…

Habit

Habit

A habit (or wont) is a pattern of behavior that is performed on a regular basis and occurs involuntarily. Habits are sometimes unavoidable. Habit development is the process through which new behaviors become automatic. Old habits are difficult to break and new habits are difficult to create because the behavioral patterns we repeat are imprinted…

Affection

Affection

Licking their owner’s face is a common way for dogs to express affection. This behavior is frequently picked up from their mother in the first few weeks of life. When puppies lick their mother’s face, she usually reciprocates by licking them. This promotes the action and teaches the puppy that it is a means of…

Patience

Patience

Patience (or forbearance) is the condition of endurance in difficult circumstances, which might imply persevering in the face of delay or provocation without reacting negatively to annoyance or anger; or displaying patience while under strain, particularly when faced with longer-term issues. Patience is the amount of endurance one can muster in the face of adversity….

Traumatic Event

Traumatic Event

What is considered a traumatic event? A traumatic event is any event that causes physical, emotional, or psychological harm. Traumatic events can include natural disasters, such as hurricanes or earthquakes, as well as man-made disasters, such as car accidents or acts of violence. Such events can be incredibly frightening and may cause long-lasting effects, such…

Kennel

Kennel

A kennel is a shelter or building for dogs or cats. When used in the plural, kennels, the term refers to any facility, collection of buildings, or property where dogs or cats are kept, maintained, and (in certain situations) bred. What Is the Difference Between a Kennel and Crate? A kennel is normally an outside enclosure for dogs, whereas a crate is a tiny interior cage. Kennels can be built of a number of materials, including wood, plastic, and metal, and are frequently used to keep dogs safe and secure when they are outside….

Crate

Crate

One form of wire container A variation of a soft crate A dog crate is an enclosure made of metal, wire, plastic, or cloth with a door in which a dog may be secured or transported. As dog cages are meant to resemble a dog’s natural habitat, they may serve as a safe haven at…

Depression

Depression

While not as commonly discussed as depression in humans, depression in dogs is a real and serious condition. Just like with people, dog depression can be caused by a variety of factors, including changes in routine, the loss of a loved one, and even health problems. Why is my dog suddenly distant? There are a…

Symptoms

Symptoms

A symptom (from Greek, “accident, calamity, that which befalls,” from, “I befall,” from v- “with, with” and, “I fall”) is a deviation from normal function or emotion that a patient notices, indicating the existence of an uncommon condition or of a sickness. A symptom is experienced subjectively by the patient and cannot be directly assessed,…

Dog Agility

Dog Agility

Dog agility is a dog sport in which a handler guides a dog through an obstacle course in a timed and accuracy competition. Dogs are allowed to run off leash with no food or toys as rewards, and the handler is not allowed to touch either the dog or the obstacles. As a result, the…

Commands to Teach Your Dog

Commands to Teach Your Dog

What Are the Basic Dog Commands? Training a dog, as every dog owner knows, takes time, patience, and consistency. While you may teach your dog many other commands, there are ten essential instructions that every dog should know. Come, sit, down, place, stay, heel, leave it, drop it, and watch me are the commands. Once…

Understanding Dog Body Language

Understanding Dog Body Language

Body language is a kind of nonverbal communication in which physical activities such as facial expressions, body posture, gestures, eye movement, touch, and the use of space are used to transmit ideas, intentions, or emotions. Both animals and humans have body language. Kinesics is another name for it. How do you tell if your dog…

Deal With Dominant Dog Behavior

Deal With Dominant Dog Behavior

In ethology, dominance is the “preferential access to resources over another person.” In the contexts of biology and anthropology, dominance is the state of possessing a higher social rank than one or more other individuals, who respond submissively to dominating persons. This allows the dominant individual to gain access to resources, like as food or…

pup

pup

A puppy is a juvenile dog. Some puppies can weigh , while larger ones can weigh up to . All healthy puppies grow quickly after birth. A puppy’s coat color may change as the puppy grows older, as is commonly seen in breeds such as the Yorkshire Terrier. In vernacular English, puppy refers specifically to…

Obedience Training

Obedience Training

Obedience training is most typically associated with dog training, and the phrase is used in that sense. Obedience training can range from very basic training, such as teaching the dog to respond consistently to basic commands like “sit,” “down,” “come,” and “stay,” to high level competition within clubs like the American Kennel Club, United Kennel…

Breed of Dog

Breed of Dog

Dog breeds are groups of domestic dogs that are closely related to one another and superficially resemble one another. These dogs all belong to the subspecies Canis lupus familiaris and have characteristic traits that are selected and maintained by humans. These dogs are bred from known foundation stock. The word “dog breed” can also be…

Dogs

Dogs

There’s no denying the special bond between humans and their dogs. For many of us, our furry friends are more than just animals – they’re true companions. They offer us unconditional love and support, and they’re always there for a cuddle or a game of fetch. But did you know that having a dog can…

Reward

Reward

The reward system is a collection of neural structures that play an important role in mediating the effects of reinforcement. A reward is an enticing stimulus given to a human or another animal in order to change its behavior. Typically, rewards serve as reinforcers. A reinforcer is something that, when presented after a behavior, increases…

Calcium

Calcium

Calcium has the chemical symbol Ca and the atomic number 20. Calcium is a soft gray alkaline earth metal that is the fifth most prevalent element in the Earth’s crust by mass. Ca2+ is also the fifth-most prevalent dissolved ion in saltwater in terms of both molarity and mass, behind sodium, chloride, magnesium, and sulfate….

Cardiovascular System

Cardiovascular System

The circulatory system, also known as the cardiovascular system, is an organ system that allows blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from cells in the body in order to nourish it, fight diseases, maintain homeostasis, and maintain body temperature and…

GPS

GPS

The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a space-based satellite navigation system that gives position and timing information in all weather situations, anywhere on or near the Earth when four or more GPS satellites have an unobstructed line of sight. Around the world, the system delivers essential capabilities to military, governmental, and commercial customers. The US…

Stimuli

Stimuli

A stimulus (plural stimuli) is a perceptible change in the internal or external environment in physiology. Sensitivity refers to an organism’s or organ’s capacity to respond to external stimuli. Normally, when a stimulus is presented to a sensory receptor, it elicits or modulates a reaction via stimulus transduction. These sensory receptors may receive information from…

Stimulation

Stimulation

The action of a variety of agents (stimuli) on nerves, muscles, or a sensory end organ to elicit activity; specifically, the neural impulse generated by a variety of agents on nerves, muscles, or a sensory end organ to elicit activity, whether ordinary general physical activity or sexual stimulation. Stimulation is frequently associated with psychological stimulation,…

Dog Behavioral Psychology

Dog Behavioral Psychology

Dog behavior refers to the internally coordinated behaviors of domesticated dogs to both internal and exterior stimuli. It has evolved over millennia of interaction with humans and their lives. As a result of this physical and social evolution, dogs have developed the ability to understand and communicate with humans more than any other species, and…

Dog Training

Dog Training

Dog training is the process of educating a dog to perform specified behaviors in response to specific orders. Dogs can be trained to execute a wide range of tricks and jobs, such as fetching a ball or playing dead. Training usually starts with simple obedience cues and evolves to more complicated stunts. Both the dog…

Should You Punish Your Dog?

Should You Punish Your Dog?

The difference between punishment and reinforcement Punishment may be defined as any intervention designed to reduce the likelihood of an action or behavior occurring again. Throwing objects at dogs and cats, tugging on a choke collar or a prong collar, intimidation with a finger, electric shock devices, and physical corrections such as lifting, kneeing, shoving,…

Dog Toy

Dog Toy

A toy is something that can be used to play with. Toys are most commonly utilized by children and dogs. Toys help children create different perspectives on life and the culture in which they live. To create toys appealing to both children and adults, several materials are employed. Many products are made to be toys,…

What Is Positive Reinforcement Training in Dogs

What Is Positive Reinforcement Training in Dogs

Reinforcement is a consequence in behavioral psychology that strengthens an organism’s future behavior if that activity is preceded by a specific antecedent stimulus. This strengthening impact can be quantified as higher frequency of behavior (e.g., drawing a lever more frequently), longer length (e.g., pushing a lever for longer periods of time), bigger amplitude (e.g., pulling…

Gastrointestinal Tract

Gastrointestinal Tract

Digestive digestion is the process of breaking down food to make it easier for the body to absorb and assimilate its constituent components. When consumed by some species, these tiny chemicals are absorbed into the bloodstream via the small intestine and circulatory system. Digestion is a type of catabolism that is commonly separated into two…

Gastrointestinal System

Gastrointestinal System

The gastrointestinal tract (often referred to as the GI tract or GIT) is an organ system responsible for eating, digesting, absorbing nutrients, and eliminating waste. The digestive system consists of the stomach and intestines and is divided into two sections: the upper gastrointestinal tract and the lower gastrointestinal tract. In its most complete description, the…

Digestive System

Digestive System

The process of digestion has many steps in the human digestive system. The first one starts in the mouth (oral cavity). During digestion, food is broken down into smaller and smaller pieces that can be absorbed and used by the body. Saliva helps make a bolus that can be swallowed in the oesophagus and move…

Amino Acids

Amino Acids

Amino acids are chemical molecules that are essential for biological activity. They are composed of amine (-NH2) and carboxylic acid (-COOH) functional groups, as well as a side-chain that is distinct to each amino acid. Other elements can be found in the side chains of certain amino acids, but these are the primary constituents of…

Fiber

Fiber

Dietary fiber, often known as roughage, is the amount of food that cannot be digested since it is sourced from plants. It has been shown that consuming meals high in fiber can help to lower appetite. It is composed of two major components: Soluble fiber, which is fiber that dissolves in water and is rapidly…

Carnivores

Carnivores

A carnivore (Latin, caro meaning’meat’ or ‘flesh’ and vorare meaning ‘to devour’) is a creature that receives its energy and nutritional requirements from a diet consisting mostly or completely of animal tissue, whether through predation or scavenging. Animals that obtain all of their nutrients from animal meat are known as obligate carnivores, whereas those that…

Multivitamins

Multivitamins

A multivitamin is a preparation that contains vitamins, dietary minerals, and other nutritional ingredients and is designed to be used as a dietary supplement. Tablets, capsules, pastilles, powders, liquids, and injectable formulations are all forms of such preparations that are commercially accessible. With the exception of injectable formulations, which are exclusively accessible and administered under…

Supplement

Supplement

Dietary supplements are taken with the intention of filling up any nutritional gaps that may be present in a person’s regular diet. They are able to take on a great many guises, including those of vitamins, minerals, dietary fiber, and amino acids, amongst others. According to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the United…

Fatty Acids

Fatty Acids

In chemistry and biology, fatty acids are carboxylic acids with either a saturated or unsaturated long aliphatic chain (tail). The majority of naturally occurring fatty acids have an even number of carbon atoms in their chain, ranging from 4 to 28. Fatty acids are frequently produced from triglycerides or phospholipids. They are referred to as…

Fish Oil

Fish Oil

Fish oil is obtained from the tissues of oily fish. Fish oils include the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), precursors of certain eicosanoids that decrease inflammation in the body and have other health advantages. The fish used as sources do not produce omega-3 fatty acids, but rather accumulate them by…

Vitamin A

Vitamin A

Vitamin A is a class of unsaturated nutritional organic molecules that comprises retinol, retinal, retinoic acid, and numerous provitamin A carotenoids, the most significant of which is beta-carotene. Vitamin A serves several purposes, including growth and development, immune system maintenance, and excellent vision. The retina of the eye requires vitamin A in the form of…

Anxiety

Anxiety

Anxiety is a distressing condition of inner turmoil that is frequently accompanied by tense behavior such as pacing back and forth, physical symptoms, and rumination. It refers to subjectively unpleasant sentiments of dread about upcoming events, such as the fear of death. Anxiety differs from fear in that fear is a reaction to an actual…

Stress

Stress

Physiological or biological stress is an organism’s reaction to a stressor, such as an environmental situation or a stimulus. Stress is the body’s way of responding to a situation. According to the stressful event, the body’s response to stress is sympathetic nervous system activation, which culminates in the fight-or-flight response. Because the body cannot maintain…

Maria Chatzigianni

Maria Chatzigianni

Maria studied Geography at the Harokopio University and completed an MSc on European Policies, Planning and Spatial Development. Fan of Escape Rooms and founder of Escapology.grFounder of M-word Web RadioMember of  Greek Directors’ GuildDirector of short length movies, music videos, and promotional videos.  Filmography 2007 Full Moon (short length – screened at Drama Film Festival) 2008 Run Away (short length – 48Hours Film Festival…