Fish oil is obtained from the tissues of oily fish. Fish oils include the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), precursors of certain eicosanoids that decrease inflammation in the body and have other health advantages. The fish used as sources do not produce omega-3 fatty acids, but rather accumulate them by consuming microalgae or prey fish that have accumulated omega-3 fatty acids, along with a high quantity of antioxidants such as iodide and selenium, from microalgae, where these antioxidants are able to protect the fragile polyunsaturated lipids from peroxidation.
Due to their position at the top of the food chain, fatty predatory fish such as sharks, swordfish, tilefish, and albacore tuna may acquire harmful chemicals through biomagnification. Due to high levels of toxic contaminants such as mercury, dioxin, PCBs, and chlordane, the United States Environmental Protection Agency recommends limiting consumption of certain (predatory) fish species (such as albacore tuna, shark, king mackerel, tilefish, and swordfish) (especially for women of childbearing age). Aquaculture feed contains fish oil. More than fifty percent of the global fish oil used in aquaculture feed is supplied to farmed salmon. Arachidonic acid, EPA, and DHA levels differ between marine and freshwater fish oils.
The oil content of the different species’ tissues ranges from 0.7% to 15.5%. In addition, their effects on organ lipids vary. There is no correlation between total fish consumption or estimated omega3 fatty acid intake from all fish and blood omega3 fatty acid concentrations, according to studies. Only fatty fish consumption, particularly salmonid, and estimated EPA + DHA intake from fatty fish were shown to be substantially linked with an increase in blood EPA + DHA. Fish oil’s omega-3 fatty acids are believed to be effective for treating hypertriglyceridemia and perhaps avoiding heart disease.
Fish oil and omega-3 fatty acids have been explored in a range of additional illnesses, including clinical depression, anxiety, cancer, and macular degeneration, but the advantages in these disorders have not been confirmed.
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